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Attachment is a fundamental emotional mechanism through which a child with his parents forms his / her ability to grow and establish relationships with oneself and others.


Attachment and loss was developed by American psychoanalyst John Bowlby (1907-1990) in his trilogy Attachment and loss to describe the biopsychological structure of the human psychic structure that defines the individual way of connecting and maintaining contact with others. Attachment is an organic psychological condition for the development of a human being and, in the broadest sense, implies the ability of the human organism to establish and maintain a connection with those beings in its surroundings, on which its survival.


Attachment is the basic form of the gap created in the primary relationship of a child-mother-father.


It is a biological draft of the child's perceptions of the world and of oneself, which only consolidates itself in life.


Affection is a coherent pattern of behavior that provides the child with the proximity of the adult, one of the parents, and always bring him in close contact with him. The sample contains the whole set of thoughts, feelings, beliefs, goals and plans and has an organic, biological function to protect the child in front of a species and the development of self-defense capabilities. In addition to the system of attachment, they work There are three other mechanisms within the individual, namely research, care and fear, and contact search. These social mechanisms are with the mechanism of attachment in dynamic equilibrium (Ainsworth).


Thus, the system should be concerned and fearfully inhibit the approaching of others and the research in the case when it is the child is exposed to stress and danger, and supports the system of contacting and approaching others when care and fear are not present (Ainsworth 1990).

Attachment is, we could say, a specific way of contact with the reality of the human one Holy. It comes from early childhood years, in which the child learned how to summon parents and keep in touch with them.


In affinity research, Ainsworth (2000) found four types of attachment, or behavior that gave the child close proximity.

Safe attachment:

This is a behavior that is extremely flexible. A child can play alone, he can cough up, resist his mother's departure, quickly settle down, and when Mom comes back, contacting her again. Typical of this form of attachment is emotional plasticity and spontaneity and the adequacy of the child's responses to the situation.

Ambivalent attachment:

A child who is ambivalently attached to his mother will be all time with the work of attention directed at her, he will not be able to fully devote himself to himself (playing), will react to his mother's movement with a panicky fear that will not be possible comfort, will cling to the mother and refuse her when she returns. Typical for this design The attachment is that the child's reactions are excessive, extreme ( locking / rejection). a variety of extreme reactions are not emotional flexibility. I would like a child to leave Mama and explore, but she is too scared and at the same time she's clinging.

Avoiding attachment:

A child who is anxiously attached will not show any signs, to even notice that the mother is with him. He will not react to her departure, nor on her arrival. Outwardly, this will be an unproblematic child, and it will be marked emotionally refraction. Measurements of heart rate, temperature and other indicators of stress will be with this, the child showed strong stress and severe distress, which he will not express.

Disorganized attachment:

A disorganized child caught crying, running stranger, looking for a mother, raising her and calling for herself. His reactions will be complete unpredictable. It's just as likely that the mother will hit him as if she were going to hug it. This kid does not he will show his ability to direct his attention to himself and to his surroundings. Even if he moves away from his mother, he will not be able to play with anything.

Survey: Mary D. Salt Ainsworth - strange situation

In 1960 she made a survey of 76 small children and their parents. In this study they are they were mainly devoted to the forms of interactions between mothers and children, and above all the way maternal responses to the child's needs, namely feeding, crying, adoring, eyebrows contact these laughs and face-face communication. Each pair of children-mothers watched 72 hours, and otherwise in eighteen sessions, each of which lasted four hours. They have one year old children he observed with mothers in laboratories where they were exposed to a whole series of procedures called foreign situations. Every mother and child were taken to a room full of toys. In this room they were accepted by a research assistant who welcomed them and invited the child to play with toys.

He observed how the child behaved when the mother left the room three times in the interval of three minutes. Between two of the three intervals, a research assistant was in the room, in one of the three the intervals were the child in the room alone. Based on this research, Ainsworth has discovered three greatly unique forms of behavior. safe children. Some two-thirds of the children were prepared to independently explore the room where the toys were, and these children occasionally turned to the mother, looking for shelter in it or finding certainty that there would still be them. They were protesting or crying when the mother left, but when she returned, they welcomed and accepted it after a short interval of refusal. They often searched for contact, wanted to hug, it was not difficult to comfort them.

Anxiety-ambivalent affectionate children. About ten percent of these children turned out to be, they are anxious, uncertain, or unsafe. They tied themselves to their mothers and feared themselves Explore the toy room. When the mother left, they became terribly anxious and upset, and often cried insufferably. But when she returned, they sought contact with her, but at the same time they angrily discouraged her from her, and refused to compromise when she wanted to comfort them.

Avoiding affectionate children. It belongs to about twenty to twenty five per cent of children but they seemed to be independent. They explored the new environment without needing it their mothers, as their safe hub, and they did not even turn to her, that she really is present. When their mothers left, children were not openly affected, however the heart rate monitor showed a strong response. When the mothers returned, the children were harsh either rejected or simply avoided.

When Ainsworth and her team were able to observe the child-mother interaction on their own homes, she could point to specific relationships between children and their mothers, to the forms of their attachments, which were a typical reflection of the maternal style of education. The mothers of the safe-knit children responded very much to the child's signals, such as hunger and crying, and they also felt the child returned the smile they received from them. The mothers of anxiety-related children were irregular and refractory to the child's needs, while the mothers of avoiding children physically or emotionally refused children.

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