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 The birth of metapsychology

Psychoanalysis and religious experience: (Chapter II) Birth of metapsychology


The human aspiration is spread between the conscious and the unconscious, and at the same time it is marked by some of the inner forces that lead to different decisions and seem unconscious. This diversity is the issue of human fundamental motivation in overcoming everyday rational thinking. Sigmund Freud approached this secret of human activity first when he divided the human psyche into conscious and unconsciousness: he emphasized the unconscious part, which included human motivation. The noun theory is called metaphysical for itself the greatest abstraction for simultaneous concrete understanding in clinical practice. Freud divulges man, his nature and all experience as a set of asocial physical tensions that appear in reason, and then the unfaithful sexual in aggressive desires the weight of relaxation. Man thus presented man as isolated in the dark internal forces that motivate him to control. There is no room for interpersonal experience, for yearning after another, in the world. It does not make sense for a relationship that would have it all. If you want to live in a permanent announcement with incomplete agencies in sexual desires, they want to engage in the asocial reality that needs to be done. For the re-examination it needs to be established that the task has clarified that this conflict is solved on the basis of complex and elegant compromises - that is, with skillful management of wishes. A classic analysis therefore wanted to detect mechanisms that could lead to the resolution of these instinctive impulses.

In the past decades, psychoanalysis has deterred from Freud and is now completely new. It is a new relational model, which in its core implicitly presupposes family relational configuration and a sense of sacredness. The entire study of the system has thus withdrawn from some theories, which were mentioned religiously only as one of the possible components of the emotional level, and not as an essential part of the relationship structure.

New psychoanalytic theories and models are based on the so-called. the relational assumption, which was most definitely defined by Mitchell. He claims that the basic material of mental life is relations with others and not instincts, as presupposed by classical metapsychology. Today's relational theories claim that man is not only a set of physiologically based instincts, but is indisputably and inevitably embedded in a relationship with other people, with two aspirations - to be connected and independent. This is about establishing relations and preserving one's own autonomy. The basic unit of psychoanalytic research in this vision is no longer an individual whose desires are contrary to the external reality but the interaction field in which an individual appears and fights in order to establish a relationship with others and articulate himself. Thus, an individual with all his desires, longings, needs and wishes always falls into the context of the relationship and the context of the sacred one. This includes human basic motivation as well as perception, feeling, thinking and behavior. Therefore, psychoanalysis requires analytical and patient involvement and cooperation in discovering these relationships.

Modern relational theory contrasts Freud's instinctive theory that the mind is something inherited, pre-shaped, that is, proceeding from the inside. The relational model claims that the intellect is interactive. Relationships and relationships between people are important. In other words, the main difference is that relational models are based on relationships with others, because of the relationship itself, while the instinctive theory seeks the second only to satisfy its own instinctive instincts. So, reason does play a role, but the deeper meaning gives a relation to a person. Both models contain biology, organisms and the social environment. The instinctive model is the "anatomy of fate," and social abilities are innate instincts. The relational model lists the reasons for the conflict between wishes, desires, longings and fears: the desire for proximity and fear in front of it, between the demand and the need to mingle with the other, and the fight for independence and independence. This is present in every relationship, between me and you. We can even say that this dynamics is the basic motivational vector of development. This conflict is most evident in the family system. Within the family, we are struggling between autonomy and at the same time belonging. This relationship marks us in the deepest psychic structure and affects our later relationships. In this psychic space, between me and you, it is also a sense of sacred, where the idea of ​​God is born, a feeling for an excess and also for a fellow man. Through compassion, which is the gift of God, it enters us divinely and gives our relationship the basic meaning, it is therefore a fundamental motivational vector of development.

Source: Christian Gostečnik

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